RO is the abbreviation of Reverse Osmosis. The membrane is basically the main filtration mechanism made from polyamides. RO technology was invented and studied by a scientist Origin from the 50s of the last century with the purpose of serving mainly for the maritime sector and aerospace research in the United States. Then, RO system was fully developed in the 70s and is widely used for the production of drinking water, pure water supplying for food production, pharmaceuticals or laboratories. That is the origin of the reverse osmosis systems (RO).
The water purification technology currently with the membrane is used quite commonly from home water filtration system to the chain of water filtration system with large capacity in industrial zones. This system can eliminate 95 to 99 percent of all minerals and chemicals (dissolved solids in water). But depending on the water quality, before crossing the membrane, the water must be treated to minimize the possibility of congestion of RO membranes and protect the life of them. The information below will clarify the principle of operation and the filtration mechanism of RO system. Because understanding the operating principles of a product will bring great benefits to the users.
1. The principle of operation
RO systems operate under a mechanism that is opposed to the usual ones, thanks to the Earth’s gravity to create the penetration of water molecules through the capillaries of the filter core (such as Ceramic). The water pressure pressing water into a membrane called semi-permeable membrane is how the core process works. Based on the motion of the water molecules and the pressure of high-pressure pumps, RO membrane creates a strong flow (This might be called the dissociation of water in the normal environment thanks to pressure). Then, this system pushes the chemical components, the metals and impurities in the water to the low-pressure areas or drift downstream along the waste line (like the principle of operation of the renal system in the human body). The membrane is like a thick cellophane tape that is designed to let in only the water pass through and none of the contaminants because if these pollutants, most metal chemicals, and bacteria are larger than 0.0001 microns, they will be blocked.
2. The filtration mechanism
The filtration process is classified based on the pressure that pushes the impurities through the membrane, the features of a membrane and the size of the membrane’s capillary. Most RO systems look similar, yet the stages are different in each product. There are generally 5 stages incorporated into a process for optimal water quality.
The first stage (mechanical filtration): The membrane PP removes the dirt, dust, sand, soil, rust and other impurities suspended in water, which are larger than 5μm in size.
The second stage (activated carbon filtration -1): The small activated carbon filter removes some organic chemicals, pesticides, detergents, suspended impurities, unpleasant taste, color as well as the heavy metal impurities.
The third stage (activated carbon filtration -2): The filter with a block of activated carbon strengthens in removing the organic compounds, pesticides, detergents, suspended impurities, and unpleasant taste, color as well as the heavy metal impurities.
The fourth stage (bactericidal filtration): The ultrafiltration of reverse osmosis system completely eliminate the dissolved salts, heavy metals, bacteria and other compounds that are larger 0.0001μm in size as well as eliminate more than 96 percent of the salt in the water.
The fifth floor (activated carbon filtration -3): This is the last stage with the aim to remove the unpleasant taste completely. Besides, it also creates the sweetness and truly pure water.
Filtering water with a reverse osmosis system will remove minerals, color, dissolved organic substances, and other molecules. Moreover, it greatly improves the aesthetics of drinking water. The filtration process of reverse osmosis system is the perfect choice to produce pure water, pharmaceutical production and so on in order to optimally serve the needs of people, especially the scarcity of clean water currently.